Faculty of Science 

Bachelor of Science in Biology

Description of courses

BIOL 141  Principles of Biology I with Lab (Cr. 4)
The course provides a survey of the main characteristics of living systems, and stresses the physico-chemical principles that underlie their functioning. Practical work acquaints students with basic experimental procedures with emphasis on the scientific method and microscopy.

BIOL 143  Principles of Biology II with Lab (Cr. 4)
The course deals with selected aspects of life at the whole organism and species level rather than at the cellular level. It focuses on the principles of evolution and population genetics, diversity of the major groups of living organisms within the five kingdoms, as well as on the general structure and behavior of organisms.
Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 222  Methodology of Scientific Writing and Reporting (Cr. 1)
The course introduces the cardinal principles of organization and presentation of scientific information.  Emphasis is on oral presentation of data in the life sciences seminar and on writing lab reports.
Prerequisite: Second year students, consent of instructor

BIOL 231  Basic Histology with Lab (Cr. 3)
The theory and practice of preparing histological slides are covered. The lab sessions concentrate on the light microscopic study of tissues using primarily the paraffin method for preparing slides.
Prerequisite: BIOL 240

BIOL 232  Introductory Geology (Cr. 3)
This course studies geological principles which form the basis for modern developments in the Earth Sciences. Students learn to appreciate the dynamic nature of Planet Earth, recognizing the processes involved over its 4.7 billion year history that account for the present physical state of the planet. Practical field and laboratory experience enhance an understanding of the local geological scene and recognize the essential economic importance of this discipline.
Elective for science students

BIOL 235  Invertebrate Biology with Lab (Cr. 3)
A study of the phylogeny, classification, morphology, physiology and ecology of invertebrates. The lab includes identification of important invertebrates from the local fauna through dissection and microscopic examination.
Prerequisite: BIOL 143

BIOL 240  General Zoology with Lab (Cr. 4)
The course emphasizes the diversity and interrelationships among species, contrasting living species with their extinct ancestors and tracing the similarities among chordates that bear clear witness to their common ancestry. Interactions of organisms and their environment are discussed. Demonstrations and dissecting of live specimens are used in the practicum part of the course.
Prerequisite: BIOL 143

BIOL 242  General Animal Physiology with Lab (Cr. 4)
This course complements BIOL 240 and extends the scope to include invertebrates. It attempts to show how the patterns of organization represented by the different phyla are adapted to meet basically similar physiological needs.  The areas covered are movement and coordination, nutrition and respiration, water relationships, reproduction and the endocrine systems.
Prerequisite: BIOL 240

BIOL 243  Plant Anatomy and Systematic with Lab (Cr. 4)
The general morphology and anatomy of  Tracheophytes is studied first.  This is followed by an overview of algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms, with emphasis on the increasing complexity of the soma and reproductive systems leading to the emergence of angiosperms. The classification of angiosperms by floral characteristics completes the course.
Prerequisite: BIOL 143

BIOL 244  Plant Physiology with Lab (Cr. 4)

The course deals with the structural aspects of a plant cell in relation to the physiology of the plant with emphasis on plant cell wall structure.  The course also covers the following areas of plant physiology: water relations, nutrient absorption, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis and its bioenergetics, and plant growth and development.
Prerequisite: BIOL 243

BIOL 251, 252  Human Anatomy and Physiology I, II (Cr. 3)
The first semester course includes skeletal, muscular, neurosensory and respiratory systems.  The second semester includes circulation, electrolyte balance and excretion, the digestive, reproductive and endocrine systems.  Emphasis is on detailed anatomy and functional physiology.
For Nursing students only prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 253  Nutrition and Dietetics (Cr. 3)
The course establishes an understanding of the place of nutrition in the promotion of growth and maintenance of health and in the processes of repair and convalescence.  Applications are made to the nutritional needs of the local culture.
For Nursing students only prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 254  Applied Microbiology with Lab (Cr. 3)
This course presents the principles of microbiology related to microbial growth, pathogenicity, immunology and the welfare of human beings.
For Nursing students only prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 321  Biostatistics (Cr. 2)
This course presents the basic principles of statistical analysis and their application to biological data analysis. This includes probability, distribution analysis of variance, regression and correlation.

BIOL 331  General Microbiology with Lab (Cr. 3)
The course is a survey of the systematic of the protista and adaptive radiation within the group.  Fungi are dealt with briefly; considerable attention is given to the prokaryotes, their classification, identification and culture.
Prerequisite: BIOL 141

BIOL 333  Ecology with field excursions (Cr. 3)
Attention is mainly directed to the rich local areas of maquis, batha and desert.  Methods of sampling, statistical analysis of observations and the setting up of ecological experiments are covered. Students are required to undertake a project and submit a written report as part of the course work. Students also contribute to the compiling of species lists and identification guides for use of people in the area.
Prerequisite:  BIOL 141

BIOL 336  Animal Behavior (Cr. 3)

This course covers a variety of animal behaviors and emphasizes the genetic and physiological basis underlying the behavioral systems. Stress is placed on the methodological problems encountered in the measurement, description and hypothesis testing of complex interactive systems.

BIOL 337  Topics in Cell Biology (Cr. 3)
This course covers the structure and function of the living cells and cellular organelles, molecular composition and metabolic activities of cellular components, including energetic, flow of information, and control mechanisms.
Prerequisite: Acceptance to major

BIOL 339  Immunology (Cr. 3)
This course introduces students to the basic concepts of immunology, humeral and cell-mediated immunity.  Special emphasis is given to the aspects of tolerance, histo-compatibility, antigen and immune interactions.
Prerequisite: BIOL 331

BIOL 341  General Biochemistry with Lab (Cr. 4)
This course is offered to third and fourth year majors.  The structures of major biomolecules are discussed, followed by a survey of intermediary metabolism and its regulation.  Current areas of investigation are introduced.
Prerequisite: CHEM 231

BIOL 342  Developmental Biology (Cr. 3)
The course is presented as an investigation of the fundamental problems of differentiation. Classic embryological studies are selectively described, only material from both animal and plant kingdoms is used.
Prerequisite: BIOL 241

BIOL 343  General Genetics (Cr. 4)
A general course covering molecular, cellular, organismic and population aspects of genetics.  The laboratory consists of techniques in culturing traditional organisms used in the study of genetics, as well as biochemical and cytological procedures to investigate genetic phenomena.
Prerequisite: Acceptance to major

BIOL 345  Geohydrology (Cr. 3)
The science of geohydrology deals with one of the most important and sensitive issues in the region. This course provides an introduction to the study of water resources stored in the ground and made available naturally as springs or by drilling wells. Practical fieldwork will include measurements and calculations of precipitation data, spring discharge and surface flow as well as familiarity with well logging and pump testing procedures conducted by the Palestinian Water Authority.
Elective for Science students
Prerequisite: for non-Science students, consent of instructor

BIOL 346  Paleontology (Cr. 3)
This course is a general introduction to a study of the fossil record. Students will be led to appreciate the environments in which the main fossil groups once lived and how successive generations responded to changes in the environment. Field and laboratory work develop the skills of collecting, recording, processing and displaying palaeontological specimens. An understanding of the significance of this discipline for any constructional undertaking, for oil and water exploration and for other economic, environmental issues is explained.
Elective for science students. Consent of the instructor required

BIOL 389  Senior Seminar (Cr. 1)
Senior students present a literature survey or research results on a topic chosen in consultation with the advisor.

BIOL 399  Selected Topics in Biology (Cr. 1, 2)
An independent study course offered to seniors of high standing. Topics are selected by the instructor according to the ability and interest of the individual student.  Students meet for a weekly conference and they must complete the study program by the end of the semester.
Prerequisite: Approval of the Chairperson

BIOL 411  Bioreading (Cr. 1)
The aim of this course is to introduce students to various types of publications in biology through reading and discussing selected papers in specific areas of biology.

BIOL 412 Biotechnology and Tissue Culture Techniques with Lab. (Cr. 3)
This course introduces students to the principles of genetic engineering, cell and tissue culture and their contributions to the development of modern agricultural biotechnology. Special emphasis is on the agricultural and industrial applications of plant cell and tissue culture.


MLSC 221 Body Fluids (Cr.2)
The characteristics of urine, CSF and semen in health and disease are discussed.  Processing and examining of these fluids are also emphasized.
Prerequisite: BIOL 141

MLSC 241 Clinical Hematology (Cr. 4)
The origin of blood cells, their differentiation, function and abnormalities are studied with special emphasis on laboratory diagnostic procedures.
Prerequisite: BIOL 141

MLSC 341 Medical Parasitology (Cr. 4)
This course discusses various types of parasites including life cycle, morphology and diseases.  Diagnostic procedures to identify each type in clinical specimens are emphasized.  Transmission means of parasites and measures of control and prevention are also discussed.
Prerequisite: BIOL 241

MLSC 342 Diagnostic Microbiology (Cr. 4)
The course emphasizes the role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.  It addresses common procedures in collecting clinical specimens, handling and processing.  The characteristics of pathogenic bacteria, methods of isolation and identification are also studied.
Prerequisite: BIOL 331

MLSC 343 Immunology and Serology (Cr. 4)
This course deals with the biological and biochemical aspects of host resistance, immunity, hypersensitivity, antigen and immune interactions.  In addition, this course discusses the principles of serologic testing and application in the diagnosis of infectious and noninfectious diseases.
Prerequisite: MLSC 241

MLSC 431 Blood Banking (Cr. 3)
This course introduces methods and techniques used in blood banking including blood grouping, Rh typing, antiglobulin test and cross matching.  Donor selection, blood processing, storage and preparation of blood components are studied.
Prerequisite: MLSC 241

MLSC 441 Clinical Chemistry (Cr. 4)
This course studies various methods of determination of the analyses of the blood including: carbohydrates, proteins, electrolytes, blood gases, enzymes, non-protein nitrogen compounds, lipids and lipoproteins.
Prerequisite: MLSC 341

MLSC 411 Field Training (Cr. 1)
This course in coordination with local hospitals, laboratories and clinics offers a training period for students for one complete semester.

Online Catalogs



Bethlehem University Foundation
Email: dc@bethlehem.edu
Phone: +1-202-526-6097
Fax: +1-202-526-6096
Washington, DC USA
Bethlehem University in the Holy Land
E-mail: info@bethlehem.edu
Phone: +972-2-274-1241
Fax: +972-2-274-4440
Bethlehem, Palestine

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