Bethlehem University Undergraduate Catalog 2020-2021

Faculty of Science/ Department of Biology/ Course description

BIOL141 - PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I - 4 credits

The course provides a survey of the main characteristics of living systems, and stresses the physico-chemical principles that underlie their functioning. This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. Practical work acquaints students with basic experimental procedures with emphasis on the scientific method and microscopy.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL143 - PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II - 4 credits

The course deals with selected aspects of life at the whole organism and species level rather than at the cellular level. It focuses on the principles of evolution and population genetics, diversity of the major groups of living organisms within the five kingdoms, as well as on the general structure and behavior of organisms. This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

BIOL144 - HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY - 3 credits

The course includes skeletal, muscular, neurosensory and respiratory systems, circulation, electrolyte balance and excretion, the digestive, reproductive and endocrine systems. Emphasis is on detailed anatomy and functional physiology. The course includes a laboratory course with the value of one credit hour.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

BIOL222 - METHODOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING & REPORTING - 1 credit

The course introduces the cardinal principles of organization and presentation of scientific information. Emphasis is on oral presentation of data in the life sciences seminar and on writing lab reports.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL230 - GENERAL ZOOLOGY - 3 credits

The course emphasizes the diversity and interrelationships among species contrasting living species with their extinct ancestors and tracing the similarities among chordates that bear clear witness to their common ancestry. Interactions of organisms and their environment are discussed. Demonstrations and dissection of live specimens are used in the practicum part of the course. The course includes a laboratory course with the value of one credit hour.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

BIOL231 - BASIC HISTOLOGY - 3 credits

The course has two lectures and one lab each week. The theory and practice of preparing histological slides are covered. The lab sessions concentrate on the light microscopic study of tissues using primarily the paraffin method for preparing slides.
Pre Requisite: BIOL240

BIOL232 - INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY - 3 credits

This course studies geological principles which form the basis for modern developments in the Earth Sciences. Students learn to appreciate the dynamic nature of Planet Earth, recognizing the processes involved over its 4.7 billion year history that account for the present physical state of the planet. Practical field and laboratory experience enhance an understanding of the local geological scene and recognize the essential economic importance of this discipline.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL235 - INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY - 3 credits

The course includes two theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. A study of the phylogeny, classification, morphology, physiology and ecology of invertebrates. The lab includes identification of important invertebrates from the local fauna through dissection and microscopic examination.
Pre Requisite: BIOL240

BIOL236 - GENERAL GENETICS - 3 credits

A general course covering molecular, cellular, organismic and population aspects of genetics. The laboratory consists of techniques in culturing traditional organisms used in the study of genetics, as well as biochemical and cytological procedures to investigate genetic phenomena.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL238 - PLANT SCIENCES - 3 credits

The general morphology and anatomy of Tracheophytes is studied first. This is followed by an overview of algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms, with emphasis on the increasing complexity of the soma and reproductive systems leading to the emergence of angiosperms. The classification of angiosperms by floral characteristics completes the course. The course includes a laboratory course with the value of one credit hour.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

BIOL240 - GENERAL ZOOLOGY - 4 credits

This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. The course emphasizes the diversity and interrelationships among species, contrasting living species with their extinct ancestors and tracing the similarities among chordates that bear clear witness to their common ancestry. Interactions of organisms and their environment are discussed. Demonstrations and dissecting of live specimens are used in the practicum part of the course.
Pre Requisite: BIOL143

BIOL242 - GENERAL ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY - 4 credits

This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. It complements BIOL 240 and extends the scope to include invertebrates. It attempts to show how the patterns of organization represented by the different phyla are adapted to meet basically similar physiological needs. The course and its lab cover concepts movement and coordination, nutrition and respiration, water relationships, reproduction and the endocrine systems.
Pre Requisite: BIOL240

BIOL243 - PLANT ANATOMY & SYSTEMATIC - 4 credits

This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. The general morphology and anatomy of Tracheophytes is studied first. This is followed by an overview of algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms, with emphasis on the increasing complexity of the soma and reproductive systems leading to the emergence of angiosperms. The classification of angiosperms by floral characteristics completes the course through the practical lab sessions.
Pre Requisite: BIOL143

BIOL244 - PLANT PHYSIOLOGY - 4 credits

This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. The course deals with the structural aspects of a plant cell in relation to the physiology of the plant with emphasis on plant cell wall structure. The course and lab sessions cover the following areas of plant physiology: water relations, nutrient absorption, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis and its bioenergetics, and plant growth and development.
Pre Requisite: BIOL243

BIOL251 - HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I - 3 credits

The first semester course includes skeletal, muscular, neurosensory and respiratory systems. The second semester includes circulation, electrolyte balance and excretion, the digestive, reproductive and endocrine systems. Emphasis is on detailed anatomy and functional physiology.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

BIOL252 - HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II - 3 credits

The first semester course includes skeletal, muscular, neurosensory and respiratory systems. The second semester includes circulation, electrolyte balance and excretion, the digestive, reproductive and endocrine systems. Emphasis is on detailed anatomy and functional physiology.
Pre Requisite: BIOL251

BIOL253 - NUTRITION & DIETETICS - 3 credits

The course establishes an understanding of the place of nutrition in the promotion of growth and maintenance of health and in the processes of repair and convalescence. Applications are made to the nutritional needs of the local culture.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141 Or MDWF213

BIOL254 - APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY - 3 credits

This course includes two theoretical meetings and one lab session each week.This course presents the principles of microbiology related to microbial growth, pathogenicity, immunology and the welfare of human beings. Lab sessions include specimen handling, cultures, sensitivty tests and staining of different types of Bacteria.
Pre Requisite: (BIOL141 Or MDWF213 )

BIOL321 - BIOSTATISTICS - 3 credits

This course presents the basic principles of statistical analysis and their application to biological data analysis. This includes probability, distribution analysis of variance, regression and correlation.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL330 - GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY - 3 credits

The course covers the structures of major biomolecules followed by a survey of intermediary metabolism and its regulation. Current areas of investigation are introduced. The course includes a laboratory course with the value of one credit hour.
Pre Requisite: CHEM233

BIOL331 - GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY - 3 credits

This course includes two theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. The course is a survey of the systematic of the protista and adaptive radiation within the group. Fungi are dealt with briefly; considerable attention is given through lab sessions to the prokaryotes, their classification, identification and culture.
Pre Requisite: (BIOL141 Or BIOL143 )

BIOL333 - ECOLOGY WITH FIELD EXCURSIONS - 3 credits

Attention is mainly directed to the rich local areas of maquis, batha and desert. Methods of sampling, statistical analysis of observations and the setting up of ecological experiments are covered. Students are required to undertake a project and submit a written report as part of the course work. Students also contribute to the compiling of species lists and identification guides for use of people in the area.
Pre Requisite: BIOL143

BIOL336 - ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR - 3 credits

This course covers a variety of animal behaviors and emphasizes the genetic and physiological basis underlying the behavioral systems. Stress is placed on the methodological problems encountered in the measurement, description and hypothesis testing of complex interactive systems.
Pre Requisite: BIOL240

BIOL337 - TOPICS IN CELL BIOLOGY - 3 credits

This course covers the structure and function of the living cells and cellular organelles, molecular composition and metabolic activities of cellular components, including energetic, flow of information, and control mechanisms.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL339 - IMMUNOLOGY - 3 credits

This course introduces students to the basic concepts of immunology, humeral and cell-mediated immunity. Special emphasis is given to the aspects of tolerance, histo-compatibility, antigen and immune interactions.
Pre Requisite: BIOL331

BIOL340 - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES - 3 credits

Students demonstrate a general understanding of the breadth and interdisciplinary nature of environmental issues. Attention is mainly directed to the rich local areas of maquis, batha and desert. Methods of sampling, statistical analysis of observations and the setting up of ecological experiments are covered. Students are also required to undertake a project and submit a written report as part of the course work.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL341 - GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY - 4 credits

This course is offered to third and fourth year majors. The structures of major biomolecules are discussed, followed by a survey of intermediary metabolism and its regulation. The nature and metabolism of major biomolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides) as well as the biological catalysts are covered in this course. This course includes three theoretical meetings and one lab session each week. the lab session of this course aims to investigate metabolic pathways on a practical level.
Pre Requisite: CHEM230 Or CHEM231

BIOL342 - DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY - 3 credits

The course is presented as an investigation of the fundamental problems of differentiation. Classic embryological studies are selectively described, only material from both animal and plant kingdoms is used.
Pre Requisite: (BIOL240 Or BIOL230 )

BIOL343 - GENERAL GENETICS - 4 credits

A general course covering molecular, cellular, organismic and population aspects of genetics. The laboratory consists of techniques in culturing traditional organisms used in the study of genetics, as well as biochemical and cytological procedures to investigate genetic phenomena.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL345 - GEOHYDROLOGY - 3 credits

The science of geohydrology deals with one of the most important and sensitive issues in the region. This course provides an introduction to the study of water resources stored in the ground and made available naturally as springs or by drilling wells. Practical fieldwork will include measurements and calculations of precipitation data, spring discharge and surface flow as well as familiarity with well logging and pump testing procedures conducted by the Palestinian Water Authority.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL346 - PALAEONTOLOGY - 3 credits

This course is a general introduction to a study of the fossil record. Students will be led to appreciate the environments in which the main fossil groups once lived and how successive generations responded to changes in the environment. Field and laboratory work develop the skills of collecting, recording, processing and displaying palaeontological specimens. An understanding of the significance of this discipline for any constructional undertaking, for oil and water exploration and for other economic, environmental issues is explained.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL389 - SENIOR SEMINAR - 1 credit

Senior students present a literature survey or research results on a topic chosen in consultation with the advisor.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL399 - SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOLOGY - 3 credits

An independent study course offered to seniors of high standing. Topics are selected by the instructor according to the ability and interest of the individual student. Students meet for a weekly conference and they must complete the study program by the end of the semester.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL411 - BIOREADING - 1 credit

The aim of this course is to introduce students to various types of publications in biology through reading and discussing selected papers in specific areas of biology.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL412 - BIOTECHNOLOGY & TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES - 3 credits

This course includes two theoretical sessions and one lab session each week. It introduces students to the principles of genetic engineering, cell and tissue culture and their contributions to the development of modern agricultural biotechnology. Special emphasis is on the agricultural and industrial applications of plant cell and tissue culture. Along with its lab session, this course will provide the theoretical basis and the hands-on experience needed for the understanding and execution of those laboratory procedures which are widely used in biotechnology and molecular genetics.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

BIOL431 - BIOSTATISTICS - 3 credits

This course presents the basic principles of statistical analysis and their application to biological data analysis. This includes probability, distribution analysis of variance, regression and correlation.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC220 - BODY FLUIDS - 3 credits

This course covers the physical, chemical and microscopic analysis of urine to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease, diabetes, urinary tract infections, stone formation and other diseases. Special emphasis will be put on other body fluids including fecal, semen, synovial and cerebrospinal fluids.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

MLSC221 - BODY FLUIDS - 2 credits

The characteristics of urine, CSF and semen in health and disease are discussed. Processing and examining of these fluids are also emphasized.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC222 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - 1 credit

The course introduces the cardinal principles of organization and presentation of scientific information. Emphasis is on oral presentation of data in the life sciences and on writing lab reports.

Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC240 - CLINICAL PARASITOLOGY - 4 credits

The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical illness, and life cycle caused by parasitic agents of infectious disease, and their identification, by traditional techniques and molecular methods, are discussed.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC241 - CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY - 4 credits

The origin of blood cells, their differentiation, function and abnormalities are studied with special emphasis on laboratory diagnostic procedures.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC242 - CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY I - 4 credits

The origin, morphology and function of hematopoietic cells are discussed. Laboratory sessions focus on theory and application of hematology procedures, including analysis of peripheral blood for red cell mass, hemoglobin content, quantity of blood cells and identification of hematopoietic cells according to degree of maturation. There is an emphasis on the correlation of laboratory data with the diagnosis and treatment of hematologic diseases.
Pre Requisite: BIOL141

MLSC243 - CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY II - 4 credits

This course focuses on white blood cell and platelet and coagulation (thrombotic) disorders. Laboratory sessions include the analysis of abnormal white blood cell morphology, bone marrow morphology, cytochemical staining and flow cytometry. There is an emphasis on correlation of clinical laboratory data with the diagnosis and treatment of hematologic diseases.
Pre Requisite: MLSC242

MLSC270 - CLINICAL VIROLOGY - 2 credits

This course deals with the most common human viral infections in terms of their structure, diagnosis, and treatment.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC331 - MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS - 4 credits

Application of molecular biology techniques for diagnosing inherited (genetic) and acquired disorders. DNA purification methods, Southern blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction and other specialized techniques including forensic DNA technology are discussed.

Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC332 - HISTOPATHOLOGY - 3 credits

This course provides students with the basic techniques of tissue preparation and analysis with special emphasis on pathological examination of cancerous tissues.

Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC334 - MEDICAL MYCOLOGY - 3 credits

The epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical illness caused by mycotic agents of infectious disease, and their culture, identification, and susceptibility testing by traditional biochemical techniques and serological methods, are discussed.

Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC341 - MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY - 4 credits

This course discusses various types of parasites including life cycle, morphology and diseases. Diagnostic procedures to identify each type in clinical specimens are emphasized. Transmission means of parasites and measures of control and prevention are also discussed.
Pre Requisite: BIOL240

MLSC342 - DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY - 4 credits

The course emphasizes the role of the clinical laboratory in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It addresses common procedures in collecting clinical specimens, handling and processing. The characteristics of pathogenic bacteria, methods of isolation and identification are also studied.
Pre Requisite: BIOL331

MLSC343 - IMMUNOLOGY & SEROLOGY - 4 credits

This course deals with the biological and biochemical aspects of host resistance, immunity, hypersensitivity, antigen and immune interactions. In addition, this course discusses the principles of serologic testing and application in the diagnosis of infectious and noninfectious diseases.
Pre Requisite: MLSC241

MLSC344 - DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY - 4 credits

The epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical illness caused by bacterial agents of infectious disease, and their culture, identification, and susceptibility testing by traditional biochemical techniques and molecular methods, are discussed.
Pre Requisite: BIOL331

MLSC346 - CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY & SEROLOGY - 4 credits

This course provides an introduction to the structure and function of the human immune system. Cells and immune proteins are discussed, as are antigen-antibody reactions. Immunochemical techniques with emphasis on clinical application in the evaluation of the immune status and the diagnosis of infectious diseases and immune disorders will be presented. Immunochemical techniques with emphasis on clinical application in the evaluation of the immune status and the diagnosis of infectious diseases and immune disorders will be presented.
Pre Requisite: (MLSC342 And MLSC343 )

MLSC389 - GRADUATION PROJECT - 2 credits

The student is supposed to undertake a graduation project either in the form of literature review or a small research study.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC410 - TOPICS IN MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCES - 1 credit

This course is a 15-lecture seminar series on advancements in laboratory medicine.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC411 - FIELD TRAINING - 1 credit

This course in coordination with local hospitals, laboratories and clinics offers a training period for students for one complete semester.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC412 - INSTRUMENTATION QUALITY ASSURANCE & LAB MANAGEMENT - 3 credits

This course discusses how to assure the quality of any laboratory test through proper management of performance characteristics of an analytical method. It provides education and training in quality control with emphasis on statistical quality control. In addition the student will be introduced to the major instrumentation in the clinical lab.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC431 - BLOOD BANKING - 3 credits

This course introduces methods and techniques used in blood banking including blood grouping, Rh typing, antiglobulin test and cross matching. Donor selection, blood processing, storage and preparation of blood components are studied.
Pre Requisite: (MLSC241 And MLSC343 )

MLSC433 - IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY - 3 credits

The Clinical Immunohematology course provides an overview of blood banking procedures, including ABO/Rh blood typing, antibody screening, antibody identification, compatibility testing, transfusion reactions and prenatal testing as it applies to blood bank serology. Cellular therapy products, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing, blood collection and processing, and quality assurance also will be covered.
Pre Requisite: MLSC346

MLSC434 - ENDOCRINOLOGY - 3 credits

This course deals with the biochemical structure of hormones and their signaling pathways. The role of the clinical lab in diagnosis of different endocrine disorders will be emphasized.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC441 - CLINICAL CHEMISTRY - 4 credits

This course studies various methods of determination of the analyses of the blood including: carbohydrates, proteins, electrolytes, blood gases, enzymes, non-protein nitrogen compounds, lipids and lipoproteins.
Pre Requisite: BIOL341

MLSC442 - CLINICAL CHEMISTRY I - 4 credits

This course provides an overview of physiological principles and concepts, methodologies, and clinical significance of biochemical analytes and elements found in blood and other body fluids. Math and statistics involved in reagent preparation and manual and automated laboratory procedures are performed. Quality control, quality assurance and result determination are emphasized. Clinical chemistry case studies are presented to aid in clinical correlation and problem-solving.
Pre Requisite: BIOL330

MLSC443 - CLINICAL CHEMISTRY II - 4 credits

This course is a continuation of Clinical Chemistry I with emphasis on the pathophysiology and biomarkers of kidney, liver and heart diseases in addition to tumor markers.
Pre Requisite: MLSC442

MLSC461 - FIELD TRAINING I - 2 credits

These are "hands-on" practicum experiences in the clinical laboratories that prepare you for entry-level positions in a clinical testing laboratory. Required core training includes rotations through bacteriology, clinical chemistry, hematology, blood banking, immunology, phlebotomy and renal analysis.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

MLSC462 - FIELD TRAINING II - 2 credits

These are "hands-on" practicum experiences in the clinical laboratories that prepare you for entry-level positions in a clinical testing laboratory. Required core training includes rotations through bacteriology, clinical chemistry, hematology, blood banking, immunology, phlebotomy and renal analysis.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

SCIE111 - GENERAL SCIENCE - 3 credits

Science 111 is a university required course designed for non-science students that aims to expose students to the basic concepts of science in a variety of domains including Chemistry (atoms in combination), Biology (molecules of life, the living cell, genetics and evolution), Physics (Units, energy, heat, Astronomy, waves and electromagnetic radiation), Technology, Environment, Health, and Safety with emphasis on applications of modern sciences in our daily life.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

SCIE140 - BIOLOGY & CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS - 3 credits

This is a three-credit tailored course for the students enrolled in software engineering program in their first year of study. The course aims at giving students some fundamentals of chemistry and biology sciences that might be useful in this specialization. In the first part, chemistry topics will be covered including: Atoms, molecules, moles, periodic table, properties of elements, electronic structure, and chemical bonding. In the second part biology topics will be covered including: View of life, atoms and molecules, the chemical basics of life, the chemistry of life, organization of the cell, biological membranes, chromosomes, mitosis, meiosis and DNA: the carrier of genetic information.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

SCIE251 - SCIENCE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD - 3 credits

This course is considered as an introduction to the advancement of science in the lower basic grades and aims to help students develop their knowledge, scientific thinking and build attitudes towards science as a subject. This course provides an opportunity for students to learn about the basic scientific topics that appear in the Palestinian curricula, courses and textbooks for the lower basic grades, and on the various branches of science of astronomy, earth, solar system, biology, technology, environment, health and safety ....etc. In addition to addressing the misconceptions that students may hold about the concepts of science and how to discover and deal with them. The course focuses on the applications of modern science in our daily lives. The aim of this course also is to help students to be capable and skilled in relation to the education of science in general and with a focus on its training for the lower basic stage.
Pre Requisite: No prerequisite

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Phone: +1-202-526-6097
Fax: +1-202-526-6096
Washington, DC USA
Bethlehem University in the Holy Land
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Fax: +972-2-274-4440
Bethlehem, Palestine